Present day names of cities and countries shown in parentheses.
All dates based on the Julian calendar.
Russia, Poland and Denmark enter into a pact of aggression against Sweden to help
them capture Swedish territory. Russia’s goal is to control the Baltic coast,
Poland wants Livland (a Swedish Baltic province) and Denmark seeks to regain
the Skäne provinces in southern Sweden.
April 1699. Russia and Denmark enter into a Treaty of Alliance.
Jan 13, 1700. Sweden, England, and Holland enter into a
Treaty of Alliance in the Hague.
Feb 12, 1700. The Polish/Saxon army under King Augustus II invades
Livland and besieges Riga (Latvia).
Mar 1700. The Danish army under King Frederik IV invades
Holstein-Gottorp and besieges Tönning (Germany).
Jul 3, 1700. Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Constantinople
that ends the Russian-Turkish War of 1686-1700.
Jul 24, 1700. King Charles XII lands his army on the coast of Zealand (Denmark).
Aug 18, 1700. The Peace of Travendal is concluded between Sweden, Denmark and
Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal (Germany). Denmark leaves the anti-Swedish alliance.
Aug 9, 1700. Russia declares war on Sweden.
Sep 23, 1700. The Russian army besieges Narva.
Nov 19, 1700. The Battle of Narva (Russia). The Swedish army under King Charles XII of
Sweden defeats the Russian siege force under Field Marshal Charles Eugène de Croÿ.
Feb 26, 1701. Russia and Poland-Saxony enter into a
new Treaty of Alliance in Birzai (Lithuania).
June 24, 1701. A Swedish force of seven ships, under
Commodore Karl Lewe, makes an unsuccessful
attempt to occupy and destroy the port of Arkhangelsk
(Russian Federation). Two Swedish vessels
are captured by the Russians.
Jul 9, 1701. The Battle of Düna River. The Swedish army
under King Charles XII of Sweden defeats
the Polish/Saxon army under General Field
Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau.
Sep 5, 1701. The Battle of Rauge (Estonia). The Swedish army
under Colonel Wolmar Anton von
Schlippenbach defeats the Russian army
under General Boris Sheremetev.
Dec 29, 1701. The Battle of Erestfer (Estonia).
The Russian army under General Boris
Sheremetev defeats the Swedish army under
Major General Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach.
May 11, 1702. A Swedish cavalry detachment under King Charles XII enters
Warsaw without resistance.
Jul 9, 1702. The Battle of Kliszów (Poland). The Swedish army under
King Charles XII defeats the Polish/Saxon army under King Augustus II.
Jul 19, 1702. The Battle of Hummelshof (Hummuli, Estonia). The Russian
army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev defeats the Swedish army under
Major General Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach.
Jul 31, 1702. A Swedish cavalry detachment under King Charles XII takes Krakow (Poland).
The Polish King Augustus II escapes.
Aug 13, 1702. The Battle of Izhora (Yam-Izhora, a village in Russia). A Russian detachment
under Petr Apraksin defeats the Swedish detachment under General Abraham Kronhjort.
Aug 25, 1702. The Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev takes the
Swedish fortress Marienburg (Aluksne, Latvia) after a twelve-day siege.
Oct 1, 1702. The Russian army under Tsar Peter I launches an assault on the Swedish
fortress Nöteborg (near Schlüsselburg, Russia).
Oct 11, 1702. The garrison of the fortress Nöteborg under Major General Wolmar Anton
von Schlippenbach surrenders to the Russian army under Tsar Peter I.
Mar 19, 1703. The Battle of Saladen (Salociai, Lithuania). Swedish troops
under Major General Adam Lewenhaupt defeat the Russian troops under Colonel Gaddon.
Apr 21, 1703. The Battle of Pultusk (Poland). The Swedish army under King Charles XII
defeats the Saxon army under General Field Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau.
May 1, 1703. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Nyenskans (St. Petersburg, Russia)
surrenders to the Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev
after a week-long siege.
May 7, 1703. A Russian galley detachment (30 boats) under Tsar Peter I captures
two ships of the Swedish naval squadron under Vice-Admiral Nummers.
May 16, 1703. The founding of St. Petersburg. Construction of the Peter and
Paul Fortress is begun.
May 1703. A Russian infantry detachment under Major General Verdin takes
the Swedish fortress Kingissepp (Russia).
May 1703. The Russian army takes over the Swedish fortress Koporie (Russia).
Jul 7, 1703. The Russian army defeats a Swedish detachment under General
Abraham Kronhjort north of St. Petersburg.
Jul 8, 1704. The Warsaw Seim (parliament) overthrows King Augustus II and places
King Charles XII’s protégé Stanislaus Leszczynski on the Polish throne.
Jul 12, 1704. Russian troops under the command of Colonel Roman von Bruce repulse
an attack on St. Petersburg by Swedish troops under the command of General Lieutenant Georg Maidel
supported by a naval squadron.
Jul 13, 1704. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Dorpat (Tartu, Estonia) surrenders
to the Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev.
July 25, 1704. The Battle of Jakobstadt (Jekabpils, Latvia). The Swedish army under
General Adam Lewenhaupt defeats a combined Lithuanian/Russian force under
Great Hetman Michail Wisniowiecki.
August 1704. Russian troops under Colonel Roman von Bruce repulse the attack
of Swedish troops under General Lieutenant Georg Maidel on St. Petersburg.
Aug 9, 1704. Russian troops under Field Marshal George Ogilvy take the
Swedish fortress Narva (Estonia), defended by a garrison under Commandant
Major-General Henning Rudolf Horn.
August 1704. King Augustus II liberates Warsaw with the help of Russian troops.
Sep 6, 1704. The Swedish army under King Charles XII enters
Lemberg (Lviv, Ukraine) after a siege.
Jun 30, 1705. Streltsy (literally "shooters," units of Russian guardsmen
from the 16th to the early 18th century who carried firearms) and Soldier
Uprising in Astrakhan. A Russian force under General Field Marshal Boris
Sheremetev suppresses the uprising on March 13, 1706.
Jul 15, 1705. The Battle of Gemäuerthof (Murmuiza, Latvia). The Swedish
army under General Adam Lewenhaupt defeats the Russian army under General
Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev.
June and July 1705. The Swedish fleet under Admiral Ankershterna makes
two unsuccessful attempts to capture St. Petersburg by trying to bypass
the fortress of Kronstadt (Russia) and the coastal fortifications on
Kotlin Island (Russia).
Sep 3, 1705. The Russian army under General Anikita Repnin takes
Mitava (Elgava, Latvia), then the capital of Courland.
Sep 14, 1705. The Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris
Sheremetev captures the Swedish fortress Bauska (Latvia).
Feb 2, 1706. The Battle of Fraustadt (Wschowa, Poland). The Swedish
army under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnsköld defeats the
Saxon/Polish/Russian army under Marshal Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg.
Apr 19, 1706. The Battle of Kletsk (Belarus). The Swedish
army under Major General Carl Gustaf Creutz annihilates the
combined forces of the Pereyaslav Cossack regiment under
Colonel Ivan Myrovych, the Myrhorod Cossack regiment under
Danyla Apostol and Semen Neplyuev’s regiment.
Sep 14, 1706. A Peace Treaty is concluded in Altranstädt (Germany)
between Augustus II, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and
Charles XII of Sweden. By this treaty Augustus II renounces the
crown of Poland in favor of Stanislaus Leszczynski, breaks his
alliance with Russia, and turns over all the Russian troops serving
under him to Sweden as prisoners of war.
Oct 18, 1706. The Battle of Kalisz (Poland). The Russian army under
Prince Aleksandr Menshikov defeats a Swedish force headed by
General Arvid Axel Mardefelt.
March 1707. Tsar Peter I holds a council of war in Zholkva (Ukraine), discussing
questions regarding the limitation of Little Russia’s (Ukraine) autonomy and
the authority of Hetman Ivan Mazepa.
Spring 1707. The Swedish army under Charles XII starts to move from Saxony into Poland.
Dec 28, 1707. Tsar Peter I holds a council of war in Zholkva (Ukraine), deciding
to implement scorched earth tactics and avoid any engagement in combat with the
enemy outside of Russia.
Autumn and winter 1707. Construction of numerous defensive installations around
Moscow, and formation of several regiments made up of residents of Moscow.
December 1707. The Swedish force deployed in the immediate proximity of the Russian
border numbers 40,000 men.
Jan 27, 1708. The Swedish army under Charles XII enters Grodno (Belarus).
Feb 8, 1708. The Swedish army enters Smorgon (Belarus).
May 17-21, 1708. The Russian galley fleet under Shautbenakht Ivan Botsis launches
an attack on Borgo (Finland). After the Swedish garrison leaves the city, the
Russian land forces ravage Borgo and its neighborhood.
Jun 25, 1708. The Swedish army under Charles XII crosses the Berezina River near
Borisov (Belarus) and enters Russia.
Jul 3, 1708. The Battle of Holowczyn. The Swedish army under Charles XII defeats
the Russian army under Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, General Field Marshal Boris
Sheremetev, and General Anikita Repnin.
Aug 30, 1708. The Battle of Malatitze (Belarus). A Russian detachment under
Major-General Mikhail Golitsin defeats the Swedish army’s vanguard under
Major-General Carl Gustaf Roos.
Sep 9, 1708. Fighting near the village of Raevka (Belarus). A Russian dragoon
detachment under Brigadier Yakov Polonsky defeats a Swedish cavalry
detachment under King Charles XII.
August and September 1708. Russian troops under Admiral Fedor Apraksin repulse
an attempted invasion of Ingermanland by a Swedish corps under General Libekker.
Sep 28, 1708. The Battle of Lesnaya (Belarus). The Russian army under Tsar
Peter I defeats a Swedish corps under Major-General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt.
Dec 22, 1708. The Swedish army under King Charles XII lays siege to the
fortress of Veprik (Ukraine). The fortress surrenders on Jan 6, 1709.
January and February 1709. Small-scale clashes between the Russian and
Swedish troops take place in Slobozhanschina (currently north-east Ukraine).
Swedish troops plunder and burn Kolomak, Khury, Lutische, Koplunovka,
Krasny Kut, Gorodnyu, Murakhvu, and other places.
Mar 28, 1709. Kost Gordienko, the Ataman of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allies
himself, his commanders, and 8,000 Cossacks with King Charles XII of Sweden.
May 11, 1709. A Russian detachment under Colonel Petr Yakovlev destroys the
Zaporozhian Siech (Ukrainian Cossack settlement).
Apr 30, 1709. The Swedish army under King Charles XII lays siege to the
fortress of Poltava.
Jun 27, 1709. The Battle of Poltava. The Russian army under Tsar Peter I
defeats the Swedish army under King Charles XII.
Jun 30, 1709. The 16,000-strong Swedish army under Major-General
Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt capitulates to the Russian army under Prince
Aleksandr Menshikov near Perevolochna (Ukraine). King Charles XII,
Hetman Ivan Mazepa, and a small detachment of Swedish soldiers and Ukrainian
Cossacks flee to the Ottoman Empire.
October 1709. The Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev
lays siege to the fortress of Riga.
Oct 9, 1709. Saxony forms an alliance with Russia in the
Treaty of Thorn (Torun, Poland).
Oct 11, 1709. Denmark allies itself with Russia in the Treaty of Copenhagen.
Oct 21, 1709. Russia and Prussia enter into a defensive alliance with the
Treaty of Marienwerder (Kwidzyn, Poland).
Dec 21, 1709. Tsar Peter I makes a solemn entrance into Moscow after the
victorious Battle of Poltava. Numerous war trophies and Swedish
prisoners of war are shown to the public.
Feb 28, 1710. The Battle of Helsingborg (Sweden). The Swedish army under Count
Magnus Gustafsson Stenbock defeats the Danish invasion army under
Lieutenant-General Jorgen Rantzau.
Mar 22, 1710. The Russian army lays siege to Vyborg (Russia), the
Swedish fortress and port.
June 13, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Vyborg
under Colonel Magnus Stiernstrole surrenders to the Russian army under
Tsar Peter I and General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin.
Jul 4, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Riga under Lieutenant
General Niels Stromberg surrenders to the Russian army under Field
Marshal Boris Sheremetev.
Aug 8, 1710. The Russian army under Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev
takes the Swedish fortress of Dünamünde (Daugavgriva, Latvia) without any fight.
Aug 14, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Pernau
(Pärnu, Estonia) surrenders to the Russian army under General Rudolf Baur.
Sep 8, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Keksholm
(Priozersk, Russia) surrenders to the Russian
army under Major General Roman Bruce.
Sep 15, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Arensburg
(Kuressaare, Estonia) located on the island of Esel (Saaremaa)
surrenders to the Russian detachment under Colonel Ernshelm.
Sep 24-27, 1710. The Sea Battle in the Kjorgebucht (Denmark).
The Danish fleet defeats the Swedish sea squadron that had
intended to attack the Danish ships transporting app. 6,000
Russians from Gdansk (Poland) to Zealand (Denmark).
Sep 29, 1710. The garrison of the Swedish fortress of Reval
(Tallinn, Estonia) capitulates to the Russian troops under General Rudolf Baur.
Nov 20, 1710. The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia.
January 1711. The Tartar Khan, Devlet-Girey II, raids Ukraine with over 80,000
Tartars supported by 10,000 pro-Swedish Ukrainian Cossacks, over 4,000 Poles
and 700 Swedes. After early advances they are driven back to the Crimea by
Russian and Cossack forces in March 1711.
Feb 25, 1711. Tsar Peter I issues a manifest in the Uspensky Cathedral of
the Moscow Kremlin declaring war on the Ottoman Empire.
Apr 13, 1711. Russia and the Principality of Moldavia sign a secret treaty
by which Moldavian Prince Dmitry Kantemir proclaims his country's vassalage
to Russia. Russia guarantees him the right to demise his throne by descent.
Jul 9-11, 1711. Ottoman Empire troops under Grand Vizier Baltaci Mehmed Pasha
surround the Russian army under Tsar Peter I near the village of Stanileshti
(Rumania) on the Prut River. Grand Vizier Baltaci Mehmed Pasha accepts General
Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev's offer of armistice and start of negotiations.
Jul 12, 1711. Russia and the Ottoman Empire enter into the Prut Treaty.
In exchange for being allowed to withdraw peacefully from Moldavia, Tsar Peter I
agrees to return the recently conquered city of Azov (Russia) and to destroy
the newly constructed Russian fortresses of Tahanrog (Russia), Kamennyi Zaton
(Kamenka-Dneprovskaya, Ukraine), and Novobogoroditsk (village Shevchenko, Ukraine).
The treaty also bars the Tsar from interfering in Polish affairs and requires
him to guarantee safe passage to King Charles XII during the King's return to Sweden.
Jul 14, 1711. The Turkish fortress of Brailov (Rumania) capitulates to the Russian
army under General Carl Ewald von Rönne. Two days later, the fortress is returned
to the Ottaman Empire by order of Tsar Peter I.
August 1711. Danish, Saxon, and Russian troops enter Pomerania and besiege the
Swedish fortresses of Stralsund (Germany) and Wismar (Germany); the sieges are
terminated at the beginning of winter.
Mar 1, 1712. An 85,000-strong Russian/Danish corps under Prince
Aleksandr Menshikov enters Pomerania.
Aug 1, 1712. The Danish army lays siege to the Swedish fortress of Stade
(Germany). The fortress capitulates on September 8, 1712.
August 21 – September 5, 1712. The Russian fleet under Counter Admiral
Ivan Botsis conducts a raid on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Dec 3, 1712. Swedish troops under General Magnus Stenbock take the fortress
of Rostock (Germany) in the Duchy of Mecklenburg.
Dec 9, 1712. The Battle of Gadebusch. The Swedish army under General Magnus
Stenbock defeats the Danish and Saxon forces under King Frederik IV of
Denmark and Saxon General Field Marshal Jakob Heinrich von Flemming.
Feb 12, 1713. Skirmishes in Bender (Republic of Moldova). Ottoman troops attack
the encampment of a few hundred Swedish soldiers, a large number of Ukrainian Cossacks,
and King Charles XII after their escape from Poltava. The fighting continues until the
king is captured. He is sent to Adrianopol (Eridne, Turkey) where he stays until his
return to Stralsund in 1714.
May 5, 1713. The garrison of the Swedish fortress of Töningen (Germany) under
Field Marshal Magnus Stenbock capitulates to the Russian army under
Prince Aleksandr Menshikov.
May 10, 1713. A Russian sea squadron under
General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin takes Helsingfors (Helsinki, Finland).
The Russian troops abandon the captured town when a Swedish sea squadron
under Vice-Admiral Erik Johan Lillie approaches Helsingfors.
May 14, 1713. The Russian galley fleet under General-Admiral
Fedor Apraksin takes Borgo (Finland). The Swedish troops under Lieutenant
General Georg Lybecker leave Borgo without fighting.
Jun 13, 1713. Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign a peace treaty
in Adrianopol (Eridne, Turkey). Many of the treaty’s provisions replicate
the Prut Treaty of 1711 in which Russia ceded the fortress of Azov (Russia)
and adjacent territories along the Arel River to the Ottoman Empire.
Jul 4, 1713. Russian and Saxon troops take the island of Rügen (Germany).
Jul 12, 1713. A Russian detachment under General Mikhail Golitsyn and a
galley fleet under Counter Admiral Ivan Botsis recaptures
Helsingfors (Helsinki, Finland).
Aug 17, 1713. A Russian detachment under General Mikhail
Golitsyn and the galley fleet under Counter Admiral
Ivan Botsis take Abo (Turku, Finland).
Sep 19, 1713. The garrison of the Swedish fortress Stettin
under the command of General of the Infantry Johan August
Meijerfeldt capitulates to the Russian army under
Prince Aleksandr Menshikov.
Oct 6, 1713. The Battle of Pälkäne. The Russian army under
General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin and General Mikhail Golitsyn
defeats the Swedish army under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt.
Feb 19, 1714. The Battle of Storkyro (Napo, Finland). The Russian army under
General Mikhail Golitsyn defeats the Swedish army under General
Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. Russian troops take Vasa (Vaasa, Finland).
Jun 1, 1714. King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg-Prussia concludes a
treaty with Peter I. The treaty confirms Russia’s gains in Ingermanland,
Karelia and Estland, and Brandenburg-Prussia’s control of Pomerania in
southern Sweden. Brandenburg-Prussia joins the anti-Swedish alliance.
Jul 27, 1714. The naval Battle of Gangut (Hanko Peninsula, southern Finland).
The Russian fleet under General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin defeats the
Swedish fleet under Vice-Admiral Gustaf Wattrang and Schoutbynacht
Nils Ehrenskiöld. Russia gets control over the Aland archipelago.
Jul 29, 1714. The garrison of the Swedish fortress of Nyslott
(Savonlinna, Finland) capitulates to a Russian force under
Colonel Ivan Shuvalov.
Sep 11, – Oct 15, 1714. The Russian galley fleet under Major
General Ivan Golovin lands troops on the western coast of
Bothnian Bay. The Swedish city of Umeå (Sweden) is burnt to the ground.
Sep 20, 1714. King Charles XII leaves the Ottoman Empire after 5 years (1709-1714).
Nov 11, 1714. King Charles XII arrives in Swedish-held
(Germany) and takes command of the
Swedish troops deployed in the fortress.
April 9, 1715. A Russian naval detachment of three frigates and one snow under
Captain Peder Bredal leaves Reval (Tallinn, Estonia) to fight against Swedish
privateers. In April the detachment captures three Swedish privateer ships.
Apr 13, 1715. The Sea Battle near the island of Femern (Germany). A
Danish squadron under Captain Peter Tordenskjold defeats a Swedish
squadron under Schoutbynacht Karl Hans Wachtmeister.
May 29, 1715. A Swedish squadron of 12 ships bombards the fortress of Reval and
Russian ships in the harbor. Return fire from the Russian ships and coastal
artillery forces the Swedish squadron to withdraw.
Jun 19, 1715. A joint English/Dutch fleet under British Admiral John Norris
and 100 merchant ships, protected by the fleet against Swedish privateers,
arrive safely in Reval. Tsar Peter I receives Admiral Norris and offers him
the command of the Russian navy. However, in October 1715 John Norris returns to England.
Jul 28, 1715. The Sea Battle near the island of Rügen (Germany) between the
Danish fleet under Admiral Peter Raben and the Swedish fleet under
Admiral Klaus Sparre. The battle is considered a draw from a tactical point
of view but a Danish victory with regard to strategy.
Aug 3, 1715. A squadron of the Russian fleet under Captain
Peder Bredal lands on the island of Gotland (Sweden). After burning many
of the island’s settlements to the ground, the squadron returns to Reval.
Dec 12, 1715. The Swedish fortress of Stralsund (Germany) capitulates to
the Prussian/Danish/Saxon troops under the command of Frederick William I
of Prussia and Frederick IV of Denmark. The Swedish King Charles XII
escapes to Sweden on Dec 13, 1715.
Mar 8, 1716. Charles XII invades Norway with a combined force of 7,000 men,
occupies the capital Christiania (Oslo), and lays siege to the Akershus
fortress. The Norwegian army’s use of scorched earth tactics forces
Charles XII to withdraw his army from Christiania to southeast Norway.
Apr 7, 1716. Wismar (Germany), the last Swedish fortress in the South
Baltic, capitulates to the Danish/Holstein army.
Apr 8, 1716. The Treaty of Danzig (Gdansk, Poland) between Russia and
Mecklenburg-Schwerin. This treaty grants Charles Leopold, Duke of
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and his successors Russia’s military support
in exchange for Russia being granted the right to build bases and
deploy troops in the duchy.
Jun 23, 1716. The Battle of Fredriksten. The Danish/Norwegian garrison
of the fortress under Lieutenant-Colonel Hans Jakob Brun repulses a
fierce assault by the Swedish army under King Charles XII and Colonel
Christer Reinhold von Slippenbach. A lack of siege guns forces the Swedish
army to retreat.
Jul 8, 1716. The Naval Battle of Dynekilen. A small Danish/Norwegian
sea detachment under Captain Peter Tordenskjold traps and defeats
in Dynekilen fjord (on the west coast of Sweden) a similar Swedish
force under Schoutbynacht Olof Strömstierna. The Swedish detachment
had been escorting Swedish transport ships that were moving troops
and siege artillery from Gothenburg (Sweden) to Fredrikstad (Norway).
As a result almost the entire Swedish transport fleet is captured or
destroyed, thus forcing King Charles XII to abandon his Norwegian
campaign of 1716 and withdraw from Norway.
Jun 4, – Jul 16, 1717. A squadron of the Russian fleet under General-Admiral
Fedor Apraksin proceeds to the island of Gotland, reconnoiters the Swedish
fortifications, and lands troops. After burning many settlements to the
ground and taking prisoners the squadron returns to Reval.
Aug 4, 1717. A treaty for the mutual protection of possessions is signed in
Amsterdam by Russia, Prussia and France. The treaty is signed in the
expectation of the inevitable defeat of Sweden in the Great Northern War.
May - August, 1718. Russian-Swedish negotiations start on the
Aland Archipelago (an autonomous region within Finland). The Swedish
delegation is headed by Baron Heinrich von Görtz and Karl Gyllenborg.
The Russian delegation is headed by Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann
and General Jacob Daniel Bruce.
October 1718. Sweden launches a new offensive on Norway. The main Swedish
force under King Charles XII moves towards Fredrikshald. Another Swedish
army under Lieutenant General Karl Armfeld moves towards Trondheim.
Nov 30, 1718. On the night of 30 November 1718, while the Swedish king is
inspecting the siege works near the fortress Fredriksten, he is shot in
the head and dies instantly. Charles XII’s sister Ulrika Eleonora
succeeds him to the Swedish throne. The Russian-Swedish negotiations
on Aland Archipelago are broken off.
May 24, 1719. The Battle of Osel Island. A Russian naval detachment under
Captain Naum Senyavin defeats the Swedish force under Commodore Wrangel.
It is the Russian fleet’s first victory over Sweden in the open sea.
May 27, 1719. Russia and Sweden resume negotiations on the Aland Archipelago.
The Swedish delegation is headed by Count Johan Paulinus Lillienstedt. The
Russian delegation is headed by Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann and General
Jacob Daniel Bruce.
July and August, 1719. Numerous landing operations of the Russian galley fleet
under General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin upset the eastern sea coast of Sweden.
Many towns, including Norrköping, Södertälje, Trosa, Nyköping, Öregrund, Östhammar,
and Norrtälje, and 1363 villages are burnt to the ground.
October 1719. The Russian delegation leaves the Russian-Swedish negotiations
because of Sweden’s refusal to cede Livland with Riga to Russia.
November 9, 1719. The Treaty of Stockholm. The treaty ending the war
between Sweden and Hannover is signed in Stockholm.
Sweden ceded the dominion of Bremen-Verden.
Jan 21, 1720. The Treaty of Stockholm. The treaty ending the war
between Sweden and Prussia is signed in Stockholm.
Sweden cedes Swedish Pomerania south of the river Peene and
east of the river Peenestrom to Prussia, including the islands
of Usedom and Wollin, and the towns of Stettin (Szczecin, Poland),
Damm (Dabie, neighborhood of Szczecin, Poland) and Gollnow (Goleniów, Poland).
The parts of Swedish Pomerania that were to remain with Sweden were
then under Danish occupation, and were restored to Sweden in the
Treaty of Frederiksborg on 3 July 1720.
Feb 29, 1720. Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden abdicates in favour of her
consort, Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel who succeeded her on the
throne on March 24 as a King Frederick I.
Apr 24 – May 8, 1720. The Russian galley fleet under
General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin conducts raids on the eastern sea
coast of Sweden. The city of Umeå and 41 villages are burnt to the ground.
Jul 3, 1720. The Treaty of Frederiksborg (Hillerod, Denmark).
The treaty ending the war between Sweden and Denmark-Norway is
signed in Frederiksborg Palace. Sweden pays 600,000 Riksdaler
in damages, breaks its alliance with Holstein, and forfeits its
right to duty-free passage through the Öresund. In addition Denmark
gains full control over Schleswig.
Jul 27, 1720. The Battle of Grengam. The Russian galley fleet under
General Mikhail Golitsyn defeats a Swedish naval squadron
under Vice Admiral Karl Georg Siöblad.
Mar 31, 1721. Peace negotiations between Russia and Sweden start in
Nystad (Uusikaupunki, Finland). The Swedish delegation is headed by
Count Johan Paulinus Lillienstedt and Baron Otto Reinhold Strömfeldt.
The Russian delegation is headed by Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann
and General Jacob Daniel Bruce.
May and June, 1721. Landing operations of the Russian galley fleet under
General-Admiral Fedor Apraksin take place on the eastern sea coast of
Sweden between Gävle and Piteå. Three towns and 506 villages are
burnt to the ground.
Aug 30, 1721. The Treaty of Nystad. Sweden cedes to Russia the
territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, large sections of
Karelia and a number of islands in the Baltic Sea. Russia returns the
conquered territories of Finland and pays 2 million silver thaler to
Sweden as compensation for the lands ceded to Russia. The Great
Northern war has come to an end.